San Marino is officially called the Republic of San Marino. Like Vatican City, it is a small country contained within Italy. It claims to be the oldest surviving sovereign state and constitutional republic in the world. San Marino was first formed in 301 as a city-state around a small church. It has maintained its independence throughout history. It is the world’s smallest republic.
San Marino has a total area of 61.2 sq km, a population of 32,000, and a very high HDI of 0.875.