Portugal is officially called the Portuguese Republic. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BCE. In 27 BCE, Lusitania, the area encompassing Portugal, was annexed as a Roman province. It was then invaded by Germanic tribes in the 5th century CE. In 1139 CE, Portugal established itself as an independent kingdom. The Portuguese Empire spanned from 1415 to 2002, which was the longest-lived of the European colonial empires. The 1910 revolution deposed the Portuguese monarchy. Portugal is now a unitary semi-presidential republic.
Portugal has a population of 10.4 million, an area of 92,212 sq km, and a very high HDI of 0.816.