Lithuania is officially called the Republic of Lithuania. It was first formed as a nation in 1236. It was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1795, and gained independence in 1918. Lithuania was then taken over by the Soviet Union in 1940, then Germany in 1944, and then the Soviet Union again in 1944. It gained independence again in 1990.
Lithuania currently has a population of 2.9 million, an area of 65,300 sq km, and a very high HDI of 0.818.