New Zealand is also called Aotearoa (in Maori). It is comprised of two large islands and several smaller ones, which split from Australia 83 million years ago. It is one of the last major landmasses settled by humans, and was settled by Eastern Polynesians in 1300 CE. It was first discovered by Europeans by a Dutch team in 1642. In 1907, it was declared a dominion of the British Empire, and Queen Elizabeth II is currently the head of state. It has an area of 268,021 sq km, a population of 4.5 million, and a very high HDI of 0.919.
New Zealanders often refer to themselves as Kiwis, a flightless bird endemic to New Zealand. Also, there are more sheep than people in New Zealand.