Mongolia is a landlocked country in east-central Asia. The Mongol Empire was formed by Genghis Khan in 1208. It has an area of 1,564,115 sq km, a population of about 2.9 million, and a medium HDI of 0.675. It is the most sparsely populated country in the world, and the second largest landlocked country (Kazakhstan is first).
Inner Mongolia is a province within China; when Mongolia declared independence from China in 1911, the Inner Mongolia region remained under Qing control.
Mongolian is typically written in Cyrillic, but there has been a recent movement to restore the old Mongolian script through schools. This is a result of Mongolia’s close alliance with the Soviet Union in the 1900s.