Rwanda is officially called the Republic of Rwanda. Its population is young and predominantly rural, with a high density. The region was first colonized by Germany and then Belgium, and gained independence in 1961. This was quickly followed by conflict between the two main ethnic groups (Hutu and Tutsi), climaxing in the 1994 Rwandan Genocide against the Tutsi.
Rwanda has an area of 26,338 sq km, a population of 12 million, and a low HDI of 0.506.