Taiwan is officially called the Republic of China and previously known as Formosa. The political and legal status of Taiwan are contentious issues. China has proclaimed that it will militarily invade Taiwan if they formalize a declaration of independence. The Republic of China is the government of Taiwan, compared to the People’s Republic of China, which rules China. The UN does not recognize Taiwan as a sovereign state.
During the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the Kuomintang party fought the Communist Party of China and lost, and fled to Taiwan to establish Taipei as the capital of the Republic of China. Meanwhile, the CCP established Beijing as the capital of the People’s Republic of China. The government structure of the ROC is a unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic.
It has a total area of 36,193 sq km, a population of 23 million, and a very high HDI of 0.890.